The Neuschwanstein Castle – A 19th Century German Castle
- 1.1 Location
- 1.2 History Of The Castle
- 1.3 Architecture
- 1.4 Tourism
- 1.5 Science, art and culture
- 1.6 Candidate for World Heritage
- 1.7 Further reading
The Neuschwanstein Castle – A 19th Century German Castle
Neuschwanstein Castle. (German) Schloss Neuschwanstein. (Southern Bavaria): Schloss Neischwanstoa.
The 19th-century historicalist palace is located on a hill overlooking the village of Hohenschwangau, near Fussen, in southwest Bavaria. King Ludwig II of Bavaria ordered the castle as a retreat for Richard Wagner. Instead of using Bavarian public resources, Ludwig paid for the palace with his own money and extensive borrowings. Construction started in 1869 but was not completed.
The castle was initially intended to be a private residence until the death of King Edward VII in 1886. The castle was opened to the public in 1886, shortly after King Edward’s death. Neuschwanstein Castle has been visited by more than 61,000,000 people since then. There are more than 1.3 million visitors annually. In summer, there can be as many as 6,000 people per day.
At 800m (2,620 feet), the municipality of Schwangau is located at the southwest border to the German state Bavaria. The surrounding area is characterised by the transition between the Alpine foothills to the south and the flat landscape of the north.
Three castles dominated the villages in the Middle Ages. One of these castles was known as Schwanstein Castle. In 1832 Ludwig’s father, King Maximilian II of Bavaria, bought the ruins to make way for the comfortable neoGothic palace that is now known as Hohenschwangau castle. The palace was completed in 1837 and became the summer home of Ludwig, his older son, who was born in 1845.
Vorderhohenschwangau Castle was located on a hill overlooking Schwanstein Castle, the two nearby lakes (Alpsee & Schwansee) and the village. In the nineteenth century, only ruins remained of the twin medieval castles. They were separated by a moat and consisted of a hall with a keep and fortified tower houses. Still, those of Hinterhohenschwangau served as a lookout place known as Sylphenturm.
From his travels, the crown prince knew about the ruins of the family palace. In 1859, he sketched the first one in his journal. The first of his many palace building projects were started when the young king became ruler in 1864.
Ludwig called the new palace New Hohenschwangau Castle. It was only after his death that it was renamed Neuschwanstein. It is clear that Hohenschwangau Castle and Schwanstein have been renamed, Neuschwanstein Castle and Hohenschwangau Castle.
History Of The Castle
Inspiration and design
Neuschwanstein embodies both the contemporary architectural fashion known as castle romanticism (German: Burgenromantik) and King Ludwig II’s enthusiasm for the operas of Richard Wagner.
Many castles were built or rebuilt in the 19th century. Sometimes, they had significant modifications to improve their beauty. Several other German states had undertaken similar palace-building projects to Neuschwanstein, including Hohenschwangau Castle and Lichtenstein Castle, Hohenzollern Castle, and many buildings along with the River Rhine Stolzenfels Castle.
Two trips in 1867 were the inspiration for Neuschwanstein’s construction: one to Wartburg near Eisenach in May and another to Chateau de Pierrefonds in July. Eugene Viollet–le-Duc was transforming a ruined castle from a palace into a historic palace.
The king saw both buildings as representing a romantic interpretation of the Middle Ages and the musical mythology his friend Wagner had left on him, whose operas Tannhauser & Lohengrin had made an indelible impression.
Ludwig’s grandfather King Ludwig I, died in February 1868. This freed him from the substantial sums previously spent on the abdicated king’s appanage. Ludwig II began the architectural project to build a private refuge in the familiar terrain far from Munich. This would allow him to live his vision of the Middle Ages.
Christian Jank, a stage designer, designed the building design, and Eduard Riedel realised it. The ruins of castles couldn’t be incorporated into the design plan for technical reasons. The initial plans for the palace were inspired by Nuremberg Castle. They envisaged a simple building to replace the old Vorderhohenschwangau Castle.
However, these drafts were rejected and replaced with more detailed drawings that led to a larger palace modelled on the Wartburg. Each draft was to be approved by the king, who demanded a detailed plan. Ludwig was so in control that the palace is now considered his creation and not that of the architects.
While Neuschwanstein was criticised by contemporary architects as being too kitsch, it is now considered one of the most important buildings of European historicism. A project similar to Neuschwanstein – Falkenstein Castle – was not completed due to financial constraints.
It can be considered a classic example of nineteenth-century architecture. The palace combines the best of Romanesque (simple geometric shapes such as cuboids, semicircular arches, and Gothic) with Byzantine architecture (the Throne Hall decor) and 19th-century technical innovations.
The Patrona Bavariae and Saint George on the court face of the Palas (main building) are depicted in the local Luftlmalerei style, a fresco technique typical for Allgau farmers’ houses. At the same time, the unimplemented drafts for the Knights’ House gallery foreshadow elements of Art Nouveau. Neuschwanstein’s designs are characterised by theatre themes. Christian Jank used coulisse drafts that he had as a scenic painter.
Although the original design was neo-Gothic, the final construction was primarily Romanesque. Slowly, the operatic themes moved from Tannhauser to Lohengrin and finally to Parsifal.
It is my intention to rebuild the old castle ruin of Hohenschwangau near the Pöllat Gorge in the authentic style of the old German knights’ castles, and I must confess to you that I am looking forward very much to living there one day; you know the revered guest I would like to accommodate there; the location is one of the most beautiful to be found, holy and unapproachable, a worthy temple for the divine friend who has brought salvation and true blessing to the world. It will also remind you of “Tannhäuser” (Singers’ Hall with a view of the castle in the background), “Lohengrin'” (castle courtyard, open corridor, path to the chapel) …
Ludwig II, Letter to Richard Wagner, May 1868
The ruins of the medieval twin castles were demolished in 1868. The remains of the old keep were also destroyed. On 5th September 1869, the foundation stone was laid for the palace. In 1872, its cellar was finished, and in 1876, everything up to the first level, with the Gatehouse being the last.
It was fully furnished and completed at the end of 1882, which allowed Ludwig to stay there temporarily and watch the construction progress. The management of civil works was transferred from Eduard Riedel in 1874 to Georg von Dollmann. In 1880, the Palas was torn down. The king was then able to move into the new building in 1884. Julius Hofmann took over the project’s direction in the same year. Dollmann had been expelled from the king’s favour.
The original brick structure of the palace was used, but it was later covered with various types and materials. From a nearby quarry, the white limestone used in the fronts was sourced.
Schlaitdorf, Wurttemberg provided the sandstone bricks used for the bay windows and portals. The windows, arch ribs and columns were made of Untersberg marble, which is near Salzburg. The Throne Hall was an addition to the plans that required a steel frame.
Scaffolding and a steam crane were used to transport building materials. A second crane was also used on the construction site. The recently founded Dampfkessel-Revisionsverein (Steam Boiler Inspection Association) regularly inspected both boilers.
The construction site was the primary employer in the area for about 20 years. The site was home to about 200 workers in 1880. This does not include suppliers or other people indirectly involved in construction. When the king demanded urgent changes or tight deadlines, 300 workers were reportedly working on the site, some even at night under the illumination of oil lamps.
The following statistics are from 1879/1880. They show a tremendous amount of building materials. 465 tonnes (513 short tonnes) of Salzburg marble, 1,550 tons (1,710 short tons), 400,000 bricks, and 2,050 cubic meters (2,680 cu. yd) wood for scaffolding.
A society was established in 1870 to provide workers with insurance. It charged a small monthly fee and was supplemented by the king. A small pension was paid to the heirs of construction accidents (30 cases are listed in the statistics).
The king was able in 1884 to move into the Palas. In 1885, his mother Marie was invited to Neuschwanstein to celebrate her 60th birthday. The Palas (hall) had almost completed its exterior structure by 1886. In the same year, Ludwig had the first wooden Marienbrucke over the Pollat Gorge, replaced by steel construction.
Neuschwanstein was too small to accommodate the royal court. It only housed the king’s private lodgings and servants’ rooms. The court buildings were used for decorative purposes, not residential.
The palace was designed to be a theatre setting for King Ludwig II. It was designated as a temple to friendship and dedicated to Richard Wagner’s life and work. Ludwig II stayed in the palace for only 172 days. He died in 1883 before he could enter the building.
During the construction of Neuschwanstein, the king’s demands and wishes grew, as did the costs. Drafts and estimates of costs were repeatedly revised. A modest study was initially planned in place of the great throne room. The drafts also included guest rooms. However, the Moorish Hall could not be realised due to a lack of resources. Although completion was initially scheduled for 1872, it was delayed repeatedly.
Neuschwanstein was not King Ludwig II’s only major construction project. It is a symbol of medieval knights’ castle. The Lustschloss of Linderhof Palace in extravagant design and the Baroque Palace of Herrenchiemsee were the next two major construction projects. The smallest project, Linderhof, was completed in 1886.
His resources were drained by all three of them. His construction projects were paid for by the king using both his civil income and private funds. Contrary to popular belief, his buildings did not directly burden the Bavarian Treasury. Ludwig received an additional secret income from Otto von Bismarck in exchange for political favours.
Neuschwanstein’s construction costs in king’s lifetime were 6.2 million marks, which is equivalent to 43 million 2017 EUR. This was almost twice the initial estimate of 3.2million marks. The king opened new credit lines because his private resources were insufficient to finance his growing construction projects.
After pointing out the dangers of insolvency, a court counsellor was appointed to replace him in 1876. He owed 7,000,000 marks by 1883. In 1884, he converted 7.5 million marks to debt and 6.5million marks to debt in August 1885.
Even though his debts had reached 14 million marks, King Ludwig II continued his architectural projects. He threatened to commit suicide if his creditors took his palaces. Ludwig applied to his cabinet in 1886 for 6 million marks. This was rejected. Bismarck advised Ludwig to apply for the money to his Parliament in April.
The Bavarian government decided in June to remove the king, who was at Neuschwanstein at that time. He became incapacitated on 9th June, and the deposition commission was arrested at the Gatehouse on 10th June. He alerted the fire brigades and gendarmerie of nearby places to ensure his safety in anticipation of the commission.
Bernhard von Gudden headed a second commission that arrived the following day. The king was then forced to leave the palace. Von Gudden placed Ludwig under his supervision. Both died in mysterious circumstances at the shore of Lake Starnberg, near Berg Castle on 13th June.
The palace was still far from being complete at the time King Ludwig died. While the external structures of the Gatehouse, Palas and Palas were almost complete, the Rectangular Tower was still being scaffolded. The Bower was still in progress, but it was completed in a simplified version by 1892.
It did not include the figures of the female saints. Also, the Knights’ House was simplified. The columns of the Knights House gallery were arranged as tree trunks and the capitals as their corresponding crowns. King Ludwig had the plans. The foundations were not available for the core of the palace complex. A 90 m (300 ft high) keep was planned for the upper courtyard. It rests on a three-nave chapel.
This idea was not realised, and a link wing between Gatehouse and Bower suffered the same fate. After the death of King Edward VII, plans for a castle garden west of the Palas with terraces and fountains were also scrapped.
The palace’s interior was completed in 1886. By 1888, the corridors and lobbies had been painted in a more straightforward style. The Moorish Hall, which was planned under the Throne Hall, was not realised.
However, the Knights’ Bath, modelled after the Knights’ Bath in Wartburg, was meant to pay homage to the knights’ cult of a medieval baptismal bath. Further abandoned projects included:
- A Bride Chamber in Bower.
- Guest rooms on the first and second floors of the Palas.
- A great banquet hall.
A complete Neuschwanstein development had not been considered, and there wasn’t a plan for several rooms.
Neuschwanstein’s construction was incomplete at the time Ludwig II died in 1886. The king did not intend to open the palace to the public. However, six weeks after King Ludwig’s death, the Prince-Regent Luitpold opened the castle to paying visitors.
By 1899, the administration of King Ludwig’s estate was able to pay off the construction debts. Neuschwanstein, which was stable and profitable from then to World War I, was a source of income for the House of Wittelsbach.
In fact, King Ludwig’s castles were the largest source of income earned by the Bavarian royals in the years before 1914. Some rooms and court buildings were completed first to ensure smooth visits. The furniture began to wear quickly because visitors could not move around the palace at first.
The government socialised the civil list when Bavaria was made a republic in 1918. In 1923, the House of Wittelsbach was involved in a dispute. King Ludwig’s palaces, including Neuschwanstein, were given to the state.
They are now managed and maintained by the Bavarian Palace Department. This division of the Bavarian Finance Ministry. The Wittelsbacher Ausgleichsfonds took over the nearby Hohenschwangau Castle, whose revenue goes to the House of Wittelsbach. In 1939, the visitor count reached 200,000.
World War II
The palace survived destruction in both World Wars due to its strategic location. It was used as a storage place for Nazi plunder until 1944. This was done by the Reichsleiter Rosenberg Institute for the Occupied Territories, a sub-organisation of the Nazi Party. It was used to catalogue the arts.
39 photo albums documenting the extent of art seizures were found in the palace after World War II. These albums are now kept in the United States National Archives.
The SS thought of blowing up the palace in April 1945 to stop the enemy from taking the building and its artwork. The plan was not realised by the SS-Gruppenfuhrer, who had been assigned the task. However, and at the end of the war, the palace was surrendered undamaged to representatives of the Allied forces.
The castle was eventually returned to the reconstituted Bavarian government by the Allied occupation authorities. The Bavarian archives used some rooms to store salvaged material as they were bombed in Munich.
The Neuschwanstein ensemble has a highly stylistic effect, both internally and externally. It is evident that the king had a strong personal interest in the decoration and design of the Neuschwanstein ensemble. His comments or commands regarding the mural of Lohengrin in Palas are a good example.
“His Majesty would like that… the ship be placed closer to the shore, that Lohengrin’s neck be less tilted and that the chain from Lohengrin to the swan is of gold and not roses and that the castle’s style be kept medieval.”
The Palas has several rooms, including the Throne Room and King Ludwig’s suite. It also contains the Singers’ Hall and the Grotto. The interior, especially the Byzantine-Arab throne room, is reminiscent of the churches and chapels of Palermo’s royal Sicilian Norman Swabian period that were related to the Kings and Germany House of Hohenstaufen. The design pays tribute to the German legends about Lohengrin, also known as the Swan Knight.
These sagas were featured in decorations at Hohenschwangau, where King Ludwig spent a lot of his youth. These themes were used in Richard Wagner’s operas. Many rooms have a border that depicts the different operas Wagner wrote, and a theatre with the set of one such play is permanently displayed in it. The interior rooms are mainly unfinished, and only 14 rooms were completed before Ludwig’s death.
One of the main features of the palace was still unbuilt, even though it was being built at the time of the king’s death. The king’s family decided to not make a massive keep that would have been the focal point of the ensemble. In the upper courtyard, you can see the foundation of the keep.
Neuschwanstein Castle is made up of many individual structures built over 150m on top of a cliff. This elongated building has many towers, ornamental and turrets, gables. It also features balconies, pinnacles, and other sculptures. Most window openings have been designed in the Romanesque style as bi- or triforia.
The ensemble of buildings offers different views from every direction of the palace, including the Tegelberg and Pollat Gorge in the south and the Alpine foothills and their lakes in the north.
It was created to be the romantic idea of a castle for knights. Unlike “real” castles, whose building stock is usually the result of centuries-old building activity, Neuschwanstein was designed from the beginning as an intentionally asymmetrical building and built in successive stages. While the castle’s typical attributes were retained, real fortifications, which are the most important aspect of medieval aristocratic estates, were not included.
The symmetrical Gatehouse is the main entrance to the palace complex. It is flanked by two stair towers. The palace’s only structure with a wall area that faces east is the gate building. It is covered in red bricks, and the court fronts are made with yellow limestone. Pinnacles surround the roof cornice.
The Gatehouse’s upper floor is topped by a crow-stepped roof gable. This was King Ludwig II’s first accommodation at Neuschwanstein. He could also view the construction work from there. The stables were to be accommodated on the ground floor of the Gatehouse.
You can enter the courtyard through the Gatehouse, which is crowned with the Bavarian royal coat of arms. There are two levels to the courtyard. The lower is defined by the Gatehouse to the east and the foundations of the Rectangular Tower to the north. The courtyard’s southern end is open and offers a great view of the surrounding mountains. The courtyard’s western end is defined by a bricked embankment.
This bulge, which protrudes in a polygonal pattern, marks the chapel of the original chapel. This three-nave church was never built and was meant to be the base for a 90-metre (295 ft) keep that would form the centrepiece of the architectural ensemble. The upper level is accessible via a flight of stairs at its side.
The foundation plan for the chapel-keep can be seen today in the upper-courtyard pavement. The Rectangular Tower, measuring 45 metres (or 148 feet), is the most prominent structure at the upper court level. It serves little more than a decorative function as part of the ensemble, much like most court buildings. The viewing platform offers a great view of the Alpine foothills to its north.
The Knights’ House is located at the northern end of the upper court. Through a continuous gallery with a blind arcade, the three-storey building can be connected to the Rectangular Tower or the Gatehouse. From the perspective of castle romanticism, the Knights’ House was the home of a stronghold’s menfolk.
Neuschwanstein had estate and service rooms. The south side of the courtyard is dominated by the Bower, which was used to complement the Knights’ House but never used as such. Together, these two structures form the Antwerp Castle motif in the first act. The floor plan for the planned palace chapel is embedded in the pavement.
The Palas (hall) marks the western boundary of the courtyard. It is the main residential and residential building of the castle. It houses the king’s stateroom as well as the servants’ rooms. The Palas is a five-story, colossal structure made up of two enormous cuboids connected at an angle.
It is covered by two adjacent high-gable roofs. The building follows the contours of the ridge. Two stair towers are found in their angles. The northern tower, which is 65m high (213ft) tall, encircles the palace roof. Both towers evoke the Chateau des Pierrefonds with their polymorphic roofs. The western Palas front features a two-storey balcony that overlooks the Alpsee.
Northwards, a low chair tower and the conservatory are visible from the main structure. The entire Palas is decorated with ornamental turrets and decorative chimneys. The court front has colourful frescos. The court-side gable has a copper lion as its crown, while the western (outward facing) gable looks like a knight.
The palace would have more than 200 rooms inside if it had been finished. This includes areas for servants and guests and for logistics and service. In the end, only 15 rooms and halls were completed. The Palas has lower stories that house administrative and servants’ areas and the current palace administration rooms.
The upper levels contain the king’s staterooms. The anterior structure houses the lodgings on the third floor. The Hall of the Songers is above it. The Throne Hall fills almost all of the upper floors in the posterior structure, which faces west. All floors have a total of nearly 6,000 sq metres (65,000 sq feet).
Neuschwanstein is home to many important interior rooms that reflect German historicism. Many of the most recent technological innovations were installed in the palace in the latter part of the 19th century. It also had a battery-powered telephone line and a bell system for servants. Rumford oven was used in the kitchen.
It turned the skewer by heating it and adjusted the speed accordingly. Hot air was used to heat a central heating system for calorifere. Additional innovations were running warm water and toilets that automatically flushed.
The Hall of the Singers measures 27 by 10 metres (89 x 33 ft] and is located on the eastern court-side wing of the Palas. It is located on the fourth floor above the king’s lodgings. It combines two Wartburg rooms: The Hall of the Singers (or the Ballroom). The Hall of the Singers is the largest room in the palace, with the Throne Hall following closely. It was one of King George V’s favourite projects for his palace.
It featured themes from Lohengrin, Parzival and other rectangular rooms. The gallery on the longer side of the room is finished by a gallery crowned with a tribune inspired by Wartburg. The narrow eastern side is terminated by a stage structured by arcades and known as the Sangerlaube. The Hall of the Singers wasn’t intended for the court celebrations of the reclusive king.
It was, instead, a walking monument that represented the culture of knights as well as courtly love in the Middle Ages. This hall was first used for a concert in honour of the 50th anniversary of Richard Wagner’s passing.
The west wing of Palas houses the Throne Hall. It measures 20 by 12 meters (66 by 39 ft). It is 13m high (43ft) and occupies the third floor. Julius Hofmann modelled it after the Allerheiligen-Hofkirche in the Munich Residenz. It is surrounded on three sides by colourful arcades. The apse at the end was meant to hold King Ludwig’s crown, but it was never finished.
The throne dais is surrounded by paintings of Jesus, the Twelve Apostles, and six canonised kings. Wilhelm Hauschild created the mural paintings. After the death of the king, the floor mosaic was completed. The chandelier was inspired by a Byzantine crown. The Throne Hall is a symbol of sacral power.
It merged the Grail Hall of Parzival with a symbol representing the divine right to kings. This was a combination of unrestricted sovereign power and King Ludwig, who was the head of a constitutional monarchy, no longer had. The apse features six portraits of canonised Kings: Saint Louis of France and Saint Stephen of Hungary.
King Ludwig II also created several smaller rooms to use in addition to the large ceremonial rooms. The third floor of the Palas’ east wing houses the royal lodging. It has eight rooms, including a living room and several smaller rooms.
Despite the extravagant decor, the living area with its modest size and the suites and sofas make a modern impression. King Ludwig II didn’t attach importance to the representative needs of past times in which monarchy was primarily public.
Interior decoration using mural paintings, tapestry and furniture refers to King Ludwig II’s favourite themes: the grail legend, Wolfram von Eschenbach’s works, and Richard Wagner’s interpretation of them.
The eastward drawing area is decorated with themes from the Lohengrin legend. Comfortable and homelike furniture is found in the drawing-room – a sofa, table and armchairs, as well as seats in an alcove northward. The study is connected to the drawing-room via a small artificial grotto.
This unusual room was initially home to an artificial waterfall and a rainbow machine. It is now connected to a small conservatory. It depicts the Horselberg Grotto and is connected to a little conservatory. The decor of the adjacent study also relates to Wagner’s Tannhauser.
The king had built a similar grotto in the Linderhof Palace park. It was more significant than the one he used. The study is located opposite the dining room. It is decorated with courtly love themes. The Neuschwanstein kitchen is three stories lower than the dining room, so it was impossible to install a “wishing table” (dining room that disappears by way of a mechanism), as Linderhof Palace or Herrenchiemsee. The service lift connected the dining room to the kitchen.
Only the bedroom and subsequent house chapel adjacent to the dining area remain in neoGothic style. A huge, carved bed dominates the king’s bedroom. With its many pinnacles, the bed canopy and the oaken panellings were the work of more than 14 carvers. Ludwig was held in this room from the 11th to 12th June 1886. Saint Louis is the name of the owner. The chapel in the adjoining little house is dedicated to him.
The basement of the Palas has a few rooms for servants, but they are not well equipped with large oak furniture. Two beds are measuring 1.80m (5 ft 11in) in length. The rooms were separated from the corridor connecting the exterior stairs and the main stairs by opaque glass windows. This allowed the king to enter and go unnoticed. The main staircase was not permitted for servants. They were limited to the narrower, steeper stairs.
Neuschwanstein is visited by almost 1.5 million people each year, making it one of the most popular European tourist destinations. The palace cannot be viewed without a guided tour of 35 minutes. Photography is not allowed in the castle. You can also take special guided tours that are focused on specific topics.
Neuschwanstein can host up to 6,000 people per day during peak season, which runs from June through August. Guests who do not have an advance reservation might be required to wait for several hours. Visitors without tickets can still walk the long driveway to the top of Neuschwanstein and see the courtyard and grounds.
Still, they will not be allowed inside the castle. The ticket centre in Hohenschwangau is the only place that can sell tickets. The total number of visitors exceeded 60 million in 2008. The revenues in 2004 were EUR6.5 million.
Science, art and culture
Neuschwanstein is a symbol of Romanticism’s era. The palace was featured in many movies, including Helmut Kautner’s Ludwig II (1955) and Luchino Visconti’s Ludwig (1972), both biopics of the king. Also, the musical Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (1968), Spaceballs (1968), and The Great Escape (1963).
It was the inspiration for Disneyland’s Sleeping Beauty Castle and Cameran Palace in animated Pokemon films Lucario and The Mystery of Mew (2005). Later similar structures were also built. In the 1996 game A Gabriel Knight Mystery, Grace Nakamura and Herrenchiemsee also visit it.
In 1977, Neuschwanstein Castle became the motif of a West German definitive stamp. It appeared on a EUR2 commemorative coin for the German Bundeslander series in 2012. It was also a finalist for the highly publicised online selection of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2007.
A meteorite that reached Earth spectacularly on 6th April 2002, at the Austrian border near Hohenschwangau, was named Neuschwanstein after the palace. Neuschwanstein I (3.9 lb) was found in July 2002, while Neuschwanstein II (3.6 lb) was found in May 2003. Neuschwanstein III (2.3 lb) was found on the Austrian side. The meteorite is an enstatite-chondrite with unusually high proportions of pure Iron (29%), Enstatite, and the rare mineral Si2N2O.
Candidate for World Heritage
Neuschwanstein, Ludwig’s Linderhof, and Herrenchiemsee palaces have been on the German tentative list for a future designation by UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Discussions are underway regarding a joint candidature with other representative palaces in romantic historicism (e.g. Schwerin Palace).