Indian Pipe – The Ghost Plant Found In Dark Forests

indian pipe plant unique beautiful plants flowers

Monotropa uniflora, also identified as ghost plant, ghost pipe or Indian pipe, is a herbaceous perennial plant native to warmer regions of Asia, North America and northern South America, but with large gaps separating areas.

The plant is seldom wholly waxy white, but frequently has black streaks or pale pink colouration. Rare exceptions may have a deep red colour.

The plant seems to resemble what plants would look like in the ghost world. It has an ethereal look and feels about it, almost as if from a distance in a dark forest you could mistake it for the apparition of a plant!

A Rare and Unique Plant

It was previously classified in the order Monotropaceae but is now incorporated within the Ericaceae.

Indian pipe plant unique beautiful plants flowers

The rare and unique plant does not have a long life span, depending on the right circumstances, (moisture after a dry spell) it can appear full-grown inside a couple of days.
Unique from most plants, it is white and does not hold chlorophyll, making other plants green or variations of it.

Instead of producing energy from sunlight, it is parasitic, particularly a symbiotic plant that “borrows” nutrients from another plant.

It gets its energy from photosynthetic trees. Since it is not reliant on sunlight to grow, it can grow in very dark conditions as in the understory of thick forest. It is often linked with beech trees.

The complicated relationship that enables this plant to develop also makes propagation and growing difficult.

Like most symbiotic plants, M. uniflora partners with a small range of fungal hosts, all of Russulaceae members.

Indian pipe plant unique beautiful plants flowers

Whats Does The Indian Pipe Plant Look Like?

The stems reach tops of 5–30 centimetres (2.0–11.8 in), enclosed with highly reduced leaves 5–10 millimetres (0.20–0.39 in) in length, best known as scales or bracts.

These arrangements are small, thin, and translucent; they do not have stalks with attached leaves but rather extend in a sheath-like style out of the stem.

As its scientific name implies, and unlike the related Monotropa hypopitys (but like the close relation Monotropastrum humile), the stems display a single flower 10–20 millimetres (0.39–0.79 in) long, with 3–8 translucent petals, 10–12 pollen producers and a single female flower ovary.

It blooms from early summer to early autumn, often a few days after rain. The fruit, an oval capsule-like formation, enlarges and grows upright when the seeds ripen. At this point, the stem and capsule look desiccated or dried out and dark brown or black.


Since the late nineteenth century, the plant has been used as a nervine(a nerve tonic that calms the nerves) (anxiolytic) in western herbal medicine.

Indian pipe has a vital role to play in the ecosystem, so please don’t pick it or pull it out of the ground. (It will swiftly turn black, so there’s literally no point.) The plant may have previously held medicinal qualities.

Native Americans utilised the sap to treat eye infections and other illnesses. Reportedly, the Indian pipe plant is edible and tastes similar to asparagus. However, eating the plant is not advised, as it may be slightly toxic.

Indian pipe plant unique beautiful plants flowers

Although the strangely beautiful plant is curiously interesting, it is best experienced in its natural environment. Bring a camera to catch this ghostly, glowing plant!

What Is Indian Pipe Plant? – Characteristics of the Indian Pipe Fungus

What is the Indian pipe? This fascinating plant (Monotropa uniflora) is unquestionably one of nature‘s weird oddities.

Because it has no chlorophyll and does not depend on photosynthesis, this ghostly white plant can flourish in the deepest & darkest forests.

Many people refer to this strange and unfamiliar plant as Indian pipe fungus, but it is not a mushroom at all – it just seems like one. It is really a flowering plant, and believe it or not, it is a blueberry species member.

The Indian Pipe is a Ghost Plant Like None Other

Each Indian pipe plant consists of an individual 3 to 9-inch (7.5 to 23 cm.) stem. Although you may see small scales, no leaves are needed because the plant does not photosynthesise(green plants that convert sunlight into energy).

A white, pale or pinkish-white, bell-shaped flower, which emerges sometime between late spring and fall, is pollinated by little bumblebees. Once the bloom is pollinated, the “bell” forms a seed capsule that ultimately releases tiny seeds into the wind.

For apparent reasons, Indian pipe is also recognised as “ghost plant” – or sometimes “corpse plant”. Indian pipe is a parasitic plant that sustains its energy and growing power by borrowing nutrients from specific fungi, trees and decomposing plant matter.

This complex, mutually beneficial process enables the plant to survive.

Indian pipe plant unique beautiful plants flowers

Where does Indian Pipe Grow?

Indian pipe is located in dark, shady woods with rich, moist soil and an abundance of decaying leaves and other plant material.

It is usually found near dead stumps. Indian pipe is often observed near beech trees too, which also favour damp, cool soil. The plant grows in most warm temperate areas of the United States. It is also observed in northern parts of South America.

People also ask

Is Indian pipe rare?

Indian pipe is located in Asia and throughout North America and sections of northern South America and is regarded as rare. It is usually found in moist shady areas.

Indian pipe plant unique beautiful plants flowers

Why is it called Indian pipe?

Monotropa uniflora is usually called “Indian pipe”, a name that echoes the mature plant’s overall appearance: a single stem with a leading distal bend and extended, flowered tip.

Is Indian pipe hallucinogenic?

I would warn against eating this plant and only in small amounts. It holds a glycoside that can be poisonous if eaten in abundance. The plant is also said to own hallucinogenic qualities.

Is Indian pipe a mushroom?

Hikers often confuse Indian pipe for a mushroom or fungus of some kind; it is really a blueberry relation without the chlorophyll.

Indian pipe plant unique beautiful plants flowers
Olympus digital camera

Can you smoke the Indian pipe?

Unlike most plants, it doesn’t produce chlorophyll, the material that makes plants green. Indian pipe looks waxy and sometimes wholly white, but it has black flecks and a pale pinkish colouration.

Further Reading

Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments